Section 105 program are to assist State, Tribal, Municipal, Intermunicipal, and Interstate agencies in planning, developing, establishing, improving, and maintaining adequate programs for the continuing prevention and control of air pollution and/or in the implementation of national primary and secondary
air quality standards.
Funding Priority - Fiscal Year 2008: A major portion of continuing program funds are being devoted by recipients to attain the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for 8-hour ozone and fine particulates (PM2.5).
This continues to be a multi-year, multi-pollutant effort and reflects the fact that the NAAQS may be periodically revised.
Funded activities include the development and submission of re-designation requests including maintenance plans for non-attainment areas meeting the NAAQS, as appropriate.
Recipients are also required to review the annual air quality reports for criteria air pollutants and take appropriate actions dealing with any areas that are newly discovered to be violating the NAAQS.
For attainment of the 8-hour ozone standard, section 105 grants will continue to support the shift of State, Local and Tribal work to implementation of control plans including updates of control strategies.
Plans for attainment include strategies such as regulation of stationary sources, mobile source emissions testing and trip reduction measures, transportation conformity, participation in the NOx/CAIR interstate emissions trading program, and other innovative approaches including early ozone reduction programs and voluntary measures at the local level.
States were to have submitted their 1997 PM2.5 state implementation plans (SIPs) by April 5, 2008 that included the following elements: attainment demonstration, emission inventory, reasonably available control technology and control measures, a reasonable further progress plan, and contingency measures.
Recipients were to have recommended designation status by December 2007 for areas not attaining the new (2006) 24-hour PM2.5 standard.
Recipients may also be working with local areas to support innovative, voluntary, early action initiatives such as the 8-hour Ozone Flex.
States with Early Action Compact Areas (EACs) which had designation deferrals and were determined not to meet attainment by 12/31/2007 under the EAC program were to have begun working on non-attainment area SIPs.
For the other criteria pollutants (i.e., CO, SO2, PM10, Pb) funds continue to assist States, Tribes and Local agencies in: maintaining compliance with existing standards; or in implementing strategies to reduce these pollutants, review data for their designation to attainment, and assist in developing attainment plans, as necessary.
Funds are also being used by State, Local and Tribal governments to bolster their individual roles in regional efforts to reduce visibility-impairing regional haze.
Regional haze SIPs were to have been submitted by December 17, 2007.
EPA and its partners continue to devote significant grant resources to ambient air monitoring as restructuring of the overall national ambient air monitoring network continues.
Reassessment is occurring in light recent revisions in the national ambient air quality standards, monitoring regulations, and the continuing needs of State, local and tribal governments.
Monitors are operated for NAAQS pollutants, PM2.5 speciation, and PAMS according to monitoring regulations, approved monitoring plans, and/or grant agreements including quality assurance provisions.
Recipients quality-assure, submit and certify air quality data on a regular basis.
Recipients were also to have begun or continued a 5-year-cycle network assessment (required by the amended national monitoring rule) and complete it by July 1, 2010.
Funds for air toxics purposes are provided to: expand existing air toxics monitoring networks operated by State, Tribal and Local agencies in order to better characterizeair toxicsrisksandassess the effectiveness of control strategies; update and review HAP emission inventory and test and review new NEI process and EIS components and provide feedback to EPA; help State and other agencies implement maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards and other air toxics standards affecting the emissions of specific categories of sources (e.g., Section 112, 111(d) and 129); and help carry out national, regional and community-based initiatives that focus on the identification and reduction of residual, multi-media and cumulative air toxics risks.
Additional priorities include implementation of air toxics reduction programs through technology-based and delegated residual risk standards.
For FY 08-09, Section 105 funds support agency-specific air pollution prevention and control activities in the form of direct grants to recipients and associated program support to help EPA address three major priorities in air pollution control: (a) attain and maintain national ambient air quality standards for criteria pollutants (ozone, particulate matter, visibility; carbon monoxide, lead, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide) which endanger human health (particularly sensitive populations) and the environment; (b) eliminate unacceptable risks of cancer and other health problems from air toxics emissions; and (c) reduce the destructive effects of acid rain deposition on land and water systems formed by ambient nitrates and sulfates.
Funds also address air pollution concerns that are multi-pollutant, cross-media, interstate, or trans-boundary in nature.
Funds for acid deposition enable States to conduct analyses of the impacts of acid rain on land and water bodies, assess the effectiveness of control strategies, and monitor the market-based acid rain trading program emissions from electric utilities.
Funding Priority - Fiscal Year 2009: By nature, much of the work occurring in FY 2008 will continue into FY 2009.
However, several new developments will alter the priorities for the program across the country in FY 2009 - the response to the new NAAQS in ozone and PM2.5, and the shift of the PM2.5 ambient monitoring program from Section 103 (100 percent federal funding) to Section 105 authority (recipient cost shared).
Recipients will continue to review air quality reports and take appropriate actions dealing with new violating attainment areas with any of the NAAQS; submit re-designation requests including maintenance plans for areas with clean air quality data as appropriate; work with local area stakeholders to support innovative, voluntary, early action initiatives such as the 8-hour Ozone Flex; continue to implement 8-hr ozone SIPs; and submit any outstanding ozone SIP elements (including prior commitments).
However, recipients will also begin preparing recommendations on designations for the potential revised ozone NAAQS.
For PM2.5, in addition to implementing their PM2.5 SIP for 1997 NAAQS, recipients will begin SIP planning for 2006 PM2.5 NAAQS and coordinate with EPA regarding recommendations and comments for 2006 PM2.5 NAAQS designations.
Some states will work withlocal agencies to implement woodstove change-out programs in areas where change-outs could significantly reduce ambient particle concentrations.
Areas may also explore feasibility of changing out existing outdoor wood-fired boilers to significantly reduce PM2.5 concentrations.
For both ozone and PM2.5, recipients will continue to implement their NOX requirements under the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR).
As in FY 2008, for ambient monitoring all state/local primary quality assurance organizations operate monitors and submit NAAQS pollutant data, PAMS, and QA data to AQS directly or indirectly through another organization according to schedule in 40 CFR Part 58.
Data must also meet quality assurance requirements.
These organizations will also submit their required annual (monitoring) network plans by July 1 unless another schedule hasbeenapproved.Theymustlso certify their 2008 NAAQS pollutant data in AQS and provide supporting documentation by July 1, 2009 (State/local only, unless tribal work plan requirement).
Additionally monitoring organizations will report real time ozone and PM2.5data to AirNOW for cities required to report the AQI (State/local only); will continue the 5-year-cycle network assessment required by July 1, 2010; (State/local only, unless tribal work plan requirement), and include final NCore siting plan in Annual Monitoring Network Plan due July 1, 2009.
Air quality reporting, including particle pollution forecasting, will be expanded to additional cities.
For regional haze, States and other stakeholders will continue to work with EPA on issues related to submitted regional haze SIPs and will continue to implement Best Available Retrofit Technology (BART) requirements.
As in FY 2008, funds for air toxics purposes are provided to: expand existing air toxics monitoring networks operated by State, Tribal and Local agencies in order to better characterize air toxics risks and assess the effectiveness of control strategies.
Recipients will collect data for the integrated 2008 hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions inventory; implement delegated or approved section 112, 111(d) and 129 standards, as appropriate, for major sources and area sources; implement delegated residual risk standards; and work with communities to develop and implement voluntary air toxics programs that address outdoor, indoor, and mobile sources with emphasis on areas with potential environmental justice concerns.
For FY 2009, the President has again proposed that the PM2.5air monitoring program be moved under Sectio 105 authority.
PM2.5 Fine Particulate Monitoring.
State and local air pollution control agencies are working with EPA to operate a national fine particulate (PM2.5) monitoring network to accurately assess and characterize the nature and extent of fine particulates (PM2.5) across the country.
This assessment is necessary to determine the air quality status of an area in relation to the national PM2.5 ambient air quality standard.
At least three years of quality-assured data are required in order to determine an area's attainment status.
The air quality status of an area will determine the nature and complexity of its attainment plan, its associated control strategies, and its implementation schedule.
The immediate goals of this multi-year program are: appropriate spatial characterization of PM2.5 NAAQS; public reporting of PM2.5 in the Air Quality Index; characterization of PM2.5 chemical speciation data for long term trends; development and accountability of emission control programs and tracking of regional haze, and limited support of health studies; implementation of NCore CO, SO2, NO2/NOy trace-level monitoring to support characterization of PM precursors; assessment of PM2.5 data quality; and procurement and testing of PM2.5 filters.
Grant funds are used to provide support to eligible State and local air agencies for continued operation of high value federal reference method (FRM) and speciation monitoring sites; additional investments in PM2.5 continuous monitoring and associated data management systems for timely reporting of high quality data; and continued investments in precursor gas analyzers, data analyses, and quality assurance activities that will support better understanding of particle formation.