The Tribal Wildlife Grants (TWG) Program fall under the wildlife conservation grants (known as the State Wildlife Grants Program) to States and to the District of Columbia, U. S. Territories, and Tribes under provisions of the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act,
for the development and implementation of programs for the benefit of wildlife and their habitat, species of Tribal cultural or traditional importance, including species that are not hunted or fished.
TWG originates from the Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2002 (Pub.
107-63), when Congress first specified that the Service use a portion of the funds under the State Wildlife Grants Program to establish a competitive grant program available to federally recognized Tribes.
This language allowed the Secretary of the Department of the Interior, through the Director of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), to establish a separate competitive Tribal grant program, known as TWG, which would not be subject to the provisions of the formula-based State Wildlife Grants Program, or other requirements of the State Wildlife Grants Program portion.